A comma splice is when a comma separates two independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction (or semicolon).
Punctuation marks are symbols or characters used in written language to provide structure, clarity, and meaning to text. They serve various purposes, including indicating pauses, separating ideas, and conveying emphasis. Here’s a description of some common punctuation marks and their uses
In American Style, punctuation typically goes inside quotation marks. For British English, punctuation usually goes outside of quotation marks. Exceptions exist in either case.
When you use “but” to join two independent clauses (each of which can stand alone as a sentence), a comma should be placed before “but”.
Use commas before “and” when joining two independent clauses to form a compound sentence. Sometimes, a comma is used after ‘and’ in a series or list.
Read the GrammarFlex guide on the 8 main rules of comma use in English grammar and writing.
An ellipsis looks like three dots ‘…’, and signifies an omission of words from a quote. Ellipses are also used to add a dramatic effect to certain types of writing.
Technically, both cont. and cont’d are correct abbreviations for continued. Cont. is a truncated form, and cont’d is a contracted form for continued.
I.e. is Latin for id est, meaning ‘in essence’. In English, this is understood as ‘that is to say’, or ‘in other words’.
Acronyms are a type of abbreviation where each word in a series or phrase forms a single word that’s pronounced differently, like YOLO (You Only Live Once).
Contractions are words that have been conjoined through the use of an apostrophe, and the omission of certain letters and sounds: haven’t, wouldn’t couldn’t.